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Morning Lecture Previews

Sheena Jardine-Olade to speak on importance of nighttime economies

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After the sun sets, a different kind of light takes hold of cities. Between night shift workers heading to their jobs and night shift socializers emerging with excitement, nighttime does not denote an ending, but rather represents a fruitful counterpart to the daytime.

Although night is sometimes associated with fear or illicit activities, Sheena Jardine-Olade combats these stereotypes through her work as co-founder of Night Lab, a research and strategy group that consults cities on how to improve their nighttime economies (NTE). 

Her work aims to infuse cities’ nightlife with vibrancy by making the spaces safer, more accessible and more sustainable.

Jardine-Olade will provide a view of what a healthy and thriving NTE can look like in her lecture, “Equity and the 24-Hour City,” at 10:45 a.m. Thursday, Aug. 4 in the Amphitheater for the Week Six theme, “After Dark: The World of Nighttime.”

In September 2020, on a panel discussion with the Canadian Urban Institute, Jardine-Olade identified two key components of the NTE: the festive economy, which includes bars and restaurants; and the gig economy, which includes essential services, office work and factory work. Along with her Night Lab colleagues, she endeavors to expand the NTE within cities to be more on par with the daytime economy. 

“As advocates for NTE, what we think is that you should be able to access all the amenities that you want whether it be 2 p.m. or 2 a.m.,” she said on the 2020 panel, “and that if cities plan for their nighttime economy — and not just as an afterthought, but holistically — that they can incorporate safety and inclusion, and they’ll receive a lot of benefits, not just economic or tangible ones, like tourism or jobs; they’ll also see other intangible benefits, as well.”

Matt Ewalt, vice president and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education, described the possible applications of the week’s theme in relation to current conversations.

“Inside a week in which we look at very timely issues, from dark skies and light pollution, to thinking about nighttime economies, that are just two of an infinite number of pathways we can take to exploring the larger theme,” Ewalt said. “(The week allows) tackling tough issues, but also having great fun with the theme.”

Jardine-Olade’s work with Night Lab and as an accessibility planner for the City of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada, gave her the opportunity to connect the logistical and creative aspects of city planning. She seeks to inform city officials about the potential successes and challenges of a flourishing NTE. 

“A lot of the work that we do is about changing public and institutional perceptions on what the nighttime economy actually is, and helping cities and communities possibly identify barriers or blindspots in policy, and also opportunities to help them have a thriving nighttime economy,” she said in 2020. 

Jardine-Olade recognizes that the nightlife of a city can shape its personality and people’s perception of it. 

“The nighttime economy helps with city identity,” she said in 2020. “It also provides social infrastructure for a lot of groups that are looking to express their identities or connect with their chosen families. It also provides space — space for creative ideas.”

Drawing upon both her master’s in urban planning and her bachelor’s in environmental management, Jardine-Olade has helped cities, such as Vancouver and Calgary, Canada, move toward sustainability across multiple domains, including economy, resource use and community. 

Founder of the arts and culture publication Freq Magazine, Jardine-Olade also taps into her creative side, aided by her experience as a musical performer. 

Ewalt cited Jardine-Olade’s versatility as a draw to invite her to speak at Chautauqua. 

“What we discovered and are so excited for, is that Sheena is someone who can really speak at the intersection of economy and a city’s arts and culture, that kind of vibrancy that’s possible with how we think about nightlife in terms of our civic identity or community building,” Ewalt said. “She brings that incredible breadth of expertise to the week.”

Jardine-Olade’s lecture will discuss designing and supporting a “24-hour city,” Ewalt said. He wants Chautauquans to return to their hometowns with a deeper understanding of how to create and sustain a flourishing nighttime economy. 

“Our hope is that there are lessons learned and innovative approaches that can be deeply meaningful and valuable in cities around the world — including those that Chautauquans call home, whether it be a large city or smaller towns — in how we think about that 24-hour life of a community, and how we think about the role of culture and urban design inside the larger civic life of the community,” he said.

Maria Tatar, emerita professor at Harvard, to share interplay of dark, light

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Maria Tatar is thinking about darkness and light, the void of nighttime and crackling campfires, and the stories we tell ourselves and each other to make sense of it all.

“We are the storytelling animal,” said Tatar, emerita professor of Germanic languages and literatures and of folklore and mythology at Harvard. “That is how we got to rise, for better or for worse, to the top of the food chain. Stories have been a way of transmitting information, wisdom and ethics.”  

Tatar will give her lecture, “Light in the Night Kitchen,” as part of Week Six’s theme, “After Dark: The World of Nighttime,” at 10:45 a.m. Wednesday, Aug. 3 in the Amphitheater.

When Tatar first heard the week’s theme, her mind spun off in a kaleidoscope of fruitful directions. She began by considering the near-universal childhood fear of the dark: a seemingly primal fear which speaks to our aversion to the unknown.

“And what is it that we have used to serve as a counterweight to that fear, but stories?” Tatar said.

The discovery of fire precipitated a twofold bulwark against the darkness. In a practical sense, fire illuminates the night, rendering the invisible and unknown recognizable. Sitting around a fire also created a context in which people began telling stories to one another, developing language and community.

“That’s going to be my entry point, the primal fear of the dark, and the antidote to that: light, fire and storytelling, all of which provide a patch of warmth and light, creating a contact zone for multiple generations,” Tatar said.

Tatar has been captivated by stories, particularly Grimms’ Fairy Tales, since she first learned to read. 

The fields in which she researches and teaches — mythology, children’s literature, cultural studies — all coalesce inextricably. She thinks of these elements of her scholarship in terms of J.R.R. Tolkien’s conceptual Cauldron of Story, which is a proverbial pot of soup in which ingredients mingle, and also in terms of w Rushdie’s Sea of Stories project, wherein culture and mythology swirl in perpetual motion. 

From her initial musings on light and dark, Tatar thought of the weighty cultural meanings embedded in those concepts. 

“Light has become our conceptual metaphor for knowledge,” Tatar said. “If you think of the Enlightenment, and how when we talk about somebody who’s smart, we say they’re brilliant, or someone is a lucid speaker.”

In a similar vein, the theme of darkness and light prompted Tatar to think about race, and all the linguistic implications on the subject. 

“That coding of light and dark affects our thinking about (race),” Tatar said. “It’s a profound, deep thought that affects our thinking about something that is only skin deep. That is, the whole question of black versus white, and the strange associations that our culture has constructed for both, with white signifying purity and innocence and virtue, and black signifying death, darkness, all kinds of evil things. The challenge for us is to figure out how to undo that binary.” 

Tatar is interested in deconstructing dichotomies in general. Like storytelling, binaries and categories help us understand our world, but sometimes to our detriment.

“When we have these binaries, like black/white, dark/light, we always establish a hierarchy,” Tatar said. “One is superior to the other and one is inferior to the other. I think that our brains tend to operate that way, and we have to dismantle that way of thinking and start to see how you need both darkness and light. They enrich each other.”

Researcher Sidarta Ribeiro to define power of dreaming

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Most mammals dream, but only humans can share their dreams with others. Ancient civilizations searched their dreams with intention for answers, for revelations, and for spiritual truths — an effort that Sidarta Ribeiro thinks has been abandoned in contemporary urban society.

Ribeiro, a neuroscientist, professor and researcher of sleep and dreaming, spent 19 years refining his book, The Oracle of Night: The History and Science of Dreams, which provides a comprehensive study of dreams and their deeper significance. This dream exploration and Ribeiro’s neurophysiological knowledge will inform his 10:45 a.m. lecture Tuesday, Aug. 2 in the Amphitheater. 

Considering this week’s Chautauqua Lecture Series theme, “After Dark: The World of Nighttime,” dreams and dreaming had to be a topic of discussion, said Vice President and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education Matt Ewalt.

“There was no one in the world better suited to help answer our biggest questions about humanity and the mysteries of dreams, and raise new questions for us to carry forward, than Sidarta Ribeiro,” Ewalt said.

Ribeiro said his talk will explore a “plausible neurobiological explanation” for spiritual beliefs around the power of dreams: that there are profound reasons for having them, that their contents are not essentially meaningless, and that the “extravagance of dreaming” is more than an “evolutionary accident.”

Cultures throughout history have perceived dreams as oracles, fonts of wisdom to reconcile the past and foresee future events. Ribeiro plans to speak about “spirituality, about the belief in gods, and how dreams may have boosted tremendously our belief in divine entities,” he said.

He presents dreams in modern life not as deterministic oracles, but as presentations of possibilities, simulating potential futures for the dreamer to consider.

“Based on yesterday,” Ribeiro said, one can posit “how tomorrow is supposed to be.”

Biomedical science has only recently acknowledged the usefulness of dreams, Ribeiro said. Research now shows that not just sleep, but dreaming with intention, is vital for cognition.

“If you dream of solving a task, you become better at solving the task,” Ribeiro said.

Ribeiro encourages the observation of dreams and keeping a dream diary to reap the oracular rewards. He advises people to absorb these words before falling asleep: “I’m going to dream, I’m going to remember. I’m going to record it.” In the morning, people should make note of every possible detail before doing anything else. It will be difficult at first, he said, but “after four or five days, you become much better.”

A crucial third stage is sharing those dreams with someone “who wants to listen, who knows you and understands your context,” Ribeiro said. “It has to be somebody who really cares.”

Having this “ability to share fears and desires,” Ribeiro said, “creates the possibility of group cohesion, uniting efforts toward a common goal, which has really made a difference” throughout humanity’s development.

Once this process becomes a habit, “it’s like putting together a puzzle. If you have many pieces in place, then you start having an idea of the whole picture. After a few weeks, you can see not only some aspects of your challenges, but the trajectory, where things are going. This really increases introspection, and is very important for psychological and emotional life, and for spirituality.”

Dreams hold within their mysteries the potential to speak for the future and reflect on the past, Ribeiro explained in The Oracle of Night.

“It is necessary to recover those dreams that are within everybody’s reach,” he wrote, “the ones we have every night but to which we pay little attention; the dreams our ancestors cultivated as oracles and which most people today ignore.”

This nearly-forgotten discipline of exploring all angles of a dream “can and should reactivate the ancestral habit of dreaming and telling,” he noted in The Oracle of Night.

“To remember dreams and to share dreams is something that is so ingrained in our bodies, it’s like breathing,” Ribeiro said, “Once you pay a little bit of attention to it, it becomes really natural.”

Jim Richardson, longtime ‘Nat’l Geographic’ photographer, to share shots illuminating ‘End of Night’

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Amid the red tomatoes and pale yellow ears of corn at the county fair, Jim Richardson, National Geographic photographer, won his first photography award: a blue ribbon and 75 cents.

“Seeing the judge come down the line, get to the photography section and, hearing the accolades that she had for my use of creative framing, and use of silhouettes, and giving me the blue ribbon,” Richardson said. “Then of course, after that, she went on to judge the big tomatoes and the ears of corn. But it was enough for me to have somebody say I was doing a good job.”

Richardson will share with Chautauquans the all-encompassing importance of protecting the night sky at 10:45 a.m. Monday, Aug. 1 on the Amphitheater stage through his lecture, “The End of Night.” He was integral in the genesis and completion of the National Geographic story “The End of Night: Why We Need Darkness,” and he will draw from this cover story to begin Week Six at Chautauqua, “After Dark: The World of Nighttime.” 

Richardson began photography through the example of his father, and spent summers photographing life on their Kansas farm — their dog, ducks in the pond and cows in the pasture. He experimented with photography, shooting from underneath microscope lenses and through telescopes. His Uncle Bob, who lived in a one-room shed next to a gas station, was an amateur telescope builder. 

“He was grinding mirrors for telescopes,” Richardson said. “He made his first telescope, and he showed me Saturn. When you see Saturn for the first time through a telescope, it’s pretty amazing. It’s really there, you know, all those rings and all.”

On warm summer nights, he and his cousins would spread quilts across their front yard “and wait, hoping it didn’t rain underneath the Milky Way,” Richardson said. 

These experiences solidified his desire to be involved with astronomy, and he began his career as a self-described “armchair astronomer.” He has traveled all over the world photographing the night sky. He has trekked out to the famed sandstone arches of Arches National Park at 3 a.m., caught the Milky Way rising above them, and he has seen the galaxy upside down from the Southern hemisphere at Easter Island. 

While he has photographed much of his Kansas home, the time spent traveling and collecting photos for the NatGeo story, “The End of Night,” is a part of his career that Richardson is most proud of.

“I continue, and have continued, to take every opportunity, when they were presented, to do more Milky Way pictures in far­­—flung locations. But, it was really (a) very intensive time of trying to find ways of showing what was going on — both showing the wonders and the splendor of it, and showing what was being lost,” he said.

Richardson realizes that not everyone had the formative experiences of his childhood and adulthood. He also recognizes that for people to become motivated to protect the night sky, they have to understand why it is important. 

He cited leatherback turtles hatching their eggs on beaches. The baby turtles emerge at night and become confused by lights on the beaches, moving toward those, and inevitable death, instead of toward the moon and ocean. Fireflies are also harmed by light pollution, as the males fly in the air, blinking as a mating signal to the females on the ground. If light pollution bars this communication, firefly populations will suffer. 

More locally, through the Dark Sky Initiative, Chautauqua encourages people to learn about light pollution and implements change, working with the Dark Sky Association to be recognized as a dark sky community. This same association has honored Richardson with, in his opinion, the coolest title he’s received: Dark Sky Defender. 

Richardson will continue to cultivate understanding with Chautauquans by sharing information on, “prosaic things as street lighting and how various kinds of street lights affect the night, and how population growth affects it, and how it spreads, and how it obliterates dark skies … and understanding which species are affected.” 

Before leaving the Amp stage, Richardson wants to instill in Chautauquans a sense of marvel at the human relationship with darkness. 

“That’s what I hope to be able to offer specifically, is more understanding, perspective,” he said, “and a sense of the wonder, both the wonder that is being lost and the wonder at our excesses, our human excesses, that threaten to take away this great gift — this great heritage — to take it away from us without us ever quite noticing.” 

Lee Drutman to ponder potential of multi-party processes

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A Democrat voting for a Republican, or vice versa, seems to Lee Drutman like an impossible chasm to cross these days. What can America build to bridge that wide gulf? In Drutman’s view, it’s a “proportional multi-party democracy.”

He believes the political reform America needs now is a solid third, or fourth, or fifth choice of parties beyond the two that currently lead national politics.

Drutman, a political scientist and senior fellow in the Political Reform program at the New America Foundation, will round out this week’s Chautauqua Lecture Series theme, “The Vote and Democracy,” with his lecture at 10:45 a.m. Friday, July 29, in the Amphitheater, making the case for why we should embrace a multi-party system.

“We are at a moment of potential transformation of our democracy,” Drutman said. “This is a real hinge point moment in history in which things could go in a lot of different directions. The stakes are incredibly high. But there’s also a tremendous opportunity to innovate and build something new.”

A political system with additional parties could “better represent the diversity and pluralism of America, providing ways to forge new compromises and bring new voices into our representative system of government that is always changing and evolving,” Drutman said.

Many voters feel increasingly alienated by the lack of a political middle ground on which to stand, and feel obliged to “choose the lesser of two evils,” Drutman said. A growing number of Americans now identify as Independents, rejecting the forced duality of the current system. Many are voicing wishes for more than two options on the ballot.

How does the nation progress toward a multi-party system? One new initiative known as fusion voting — where multiple parties can support the same candidate on the ballot — would provide disheartened voters a step toward moderation in place of the two-party system. The increased influence this might present third parties “would be a tremendous step forward,” Drutman said, in the building of a “much needed moderate party in our politics.”

“Really, we need five or six parties to effectively represent the diversity of values, experiences and perspectives in this country,” Drutman said. 

The key is striking a balance — a healthy range of political groups competitive enough to give voters the chance to make “real and meaningful choices,” while avoiding excessive fragmentation.

Beyond these proposals, Drutman advocated for a broader move toward multi-member congressional districts, which would enable new parties to thrive. He has also made the case for enlarging the House of Representatives to ease proportional multi-party elections, a topic on which he testified Thursday before the Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress.

“We need more diversity and pluralism in our elected bodies. We need new voices. There’s a lot of perspectives that are not well represented there,” Drutman said. “Expansion is the best way to bring more people in without kicking out the people there now who also have valuable experience to offer.”

Without expanding the House to include districts with multiple representatives, Drutman said, gerrymandering continues to hinder equal representation. This constituency manipulation, further enabled by mandatory redistricting following the 2020 census, allows candidates to win regardless of whether they have the majority’s support or not, and exists solely because of the single-member district.

“A proportional voting system helps to combat the evils of gerrymandering, because if you have proportional multi-member districts, gerrymandering basically becomes irrelevant,” Drutman said.

Drutman raised the question of why seemingly more Americans than ever distrust the voting process and perceive their vote as insecure. He thinks it’s an “outgrowth of our binary two-party system, fomented by political leaders” seeking to sow distrust and demonize opponents.

“Because this country is evenly split,” Drutman said, “you have these narrow elections, and tremendous hatred for the other side. So it’s natural — if the election margins are tight, you’re likely to believe it if your side says ‘the system is rigged, it was corrupt, they cheated.’ ”

In studying other countries with multi-party structures, Drutman has found that voters in losing parties are “more likely to accept their losses in proportional systems, because the stakes are lower. A coalition will form roughly around the political middle no matter what.” In the current American system however, “if you get 50.1% of the vote, you get all the power,” he said, leading voters to feel much more of a blow, especially when the competing side is seen as a dangerous and distant foe.

“It’s hard to have legitimate elections when you don’t think the other side is legitimate opposition,” Drutman said.

In his talk, Drutman will reflect on the ways in which a multiplicity of parties will actually bring Americans closer together, not create further division. The gap between political extremes may be narrowed not by less political debate, but by more.

“Our binary arrangement shuts down thinking,” Drutman said, but, “the more sides we have, the more thinking we do, and the more we’re willing to consider.”

Harvard’s Noah Feldman to discuss free speech, social media platforms

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To Noah Feldman, the overturning of Roe v. Wade represents a cataclysmic shift in modern politics.

“When the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey, it repudiated the very idea that America’s highest court exists to protect people’s fundamental liberties from legislative majorities that would infringe on them,” wrote Feldman, a historian, author of 10 books, and Felix Frankfurter Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, in an Bloomberg opinion piecetitled, “Ending Roe Is Institutional Suicide for Supreme Court.”

At 10:45 a.m. Thursday, July 14, in the Amphitheater, Feldman will give a lecture focused on free speech, Big Tech and social media platforms. Feldman’s presentation falls under the Chautauqua Lecture Series Week Three theme, “The Future of Human Rights.”

For Bloomberg, he wrote that the recent ruling, a “catastrophe for women,” also represents a tyranny of the majority. 

“The right to an abortion was based on the principle of a living Constitution that evolves to expand liberty and equality,” he wrote. “That same master principle of modern constitutional law provided the grounding for Brown v. Board of Education, ending segregation. It was the basis for Obergefell v. Hodges, finding a right to same-sex marriage.”

Feldman described the Supreme Court’s decision as an act of “institutional suicide” for the court as a whole.

“The legitimacy of the modern court depends on its capacity to protect the vulnerable by limiting how the majority can infringe on basic rights to liberty and equality,” he wrote.

Within the context of the week’s theme, Feldman will relate human rights to free expression, Big Tech and social media. 

“With how we were framing this week, considering the future of human rights, we invited Noah Feldman — one of the great legal scholars of our time — to be thinking about social media platforms from an ethics and human rights perspective,” said Matt Ewalt, vice president and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education.

According to Ewalt, Feldman, who played a role in creating Facebook’s oversight board, will be speaking primarily on the issue of free speech. 

“He’ll be speaking about it both in the ways social media platforms have helped us communicate with each other,” he said. “But perhaps most importantly, Feldman will talk about the potential risks and dangers that that technology creates, and really connect it to the larger human rights issues and challenges.”

It’s a topic that Ewalt said he hopes will act like a lens for Chautauquans to be “more critical consumers” of social media platforms. 

“The very questions we need to be asking ourselves are about better understanding the consequences of using these platforms,” he said. “And we need to not take for granted the role of these platforms within our larger consideration of human rights challenges.”

Brookings’ Constanze Stelzenmüller to discuss what Ukraine war means for U.S.

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When Constanze Stelzenmüller first spoke at Chautauqua Institution, it was in the middle of a week dedicated to evolving issues in Europe, and how the continent was redefining itself geopolitically in the 21st century.

She’d planned on focusing on the future of European foreign policy, but following several other morning lectures she was in attendance for — including journalist Roger Cohen and financial specialist David Marsh — she pivoted and started from scratch, offering a perspective on her native Germany. 

She spoke on its role in both Europe and broader international affairs, and how the country evolved from the end of World War II to the economic strength it possessed in summer 2015.

“The reality is that the Germans are not in the (European Union) what the Americans are in NATO,” she told Chautauquans that summer. 

“It may be currently the most powerful, and with the most successful economy, but we are very conscious that, just 10 years ago, we were the sick man of Europe, and what goes around, comes around.”

A lot has changed since that lecture in 2015, and in summer 2022, Stelzenmüller has again pivoted. 

Matt Ewalt, vice president and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education, noted that Stelzenmüller was among the first speakers invited for the Chautauqua Lecture Series Week One theme: “What Should be America’s Role in the World?” 

“(Stelzenmüller’s) lecture in 2015, during our week on ‘Redefining Europe,’ remains one of the most buzzed-about talks on geopolitics in Chautauqua’s recent history,” Ewalt said. “As we thought about our 2022 season, and the excitement about reconvening as a community in conversation, her name was one at the top of our list of speakers we wanted back in the Amphitheater.”

The invitation to speak in 2022 came the same month as Germany’s election, in which Olaf Scholz emerged as the winner to replace longtime chancellor Angela Merkel. 

The thought, Ewalt said, was to have Stelzenmüller — who is the first Fritz Stern Chair on Germany and trans-Atlantic Relations in the Center on the United States and Europe at Brookings Institution — examine what Scholz’s election, and Merkel’s departure, would mean for the EU and for the Biden Administration. 

Stelzenmüller would also offer insights on how Germany defines its role as the anchor economy in the region. 

And then Russia invaded Ukraine. 

So, Stelzenmüller took a different approach. She’ll deliver her morning lecture, now titled “Putin’s War: What it Means for America’s Role in Europe and the World,” at 10:45 a.m. Tuesday, June 28, in the Amphitheater.

An expert on German, European, and trans-Atlantic foreign and security policy and strategy, Stelzenmüller has held several positions at Brookings, including senior fellow in the Center on the United States and Europe, and the inaugural Robert Bosch Senior Fellow. 

At the Library of Congress, she served as Henry A. Kissinger Chair on Foreign Policy and International Relations, and was senior trans-Atlantic fellow with the German Marshall Fund of the United States.

A prolific writer in both German and English, Stelzenmüller has been published in Foreign Affairs, Internationale Politik, the Financial Times, the International New York Times and Süddeutsche Zeitung, among others. In April 2022, two months after Russia invaded Ukraine, she wrote for the Financial Times arguing that the German government hesitated to provide military support to Ukraine, drawing ire from allies — and highlighting weaknesses of the Social Democratic Party. She likened it to a “merciless war … being waged in the middle of Europe — on Germany’s ruling Social Democratic Party. That, at least, is what a casual observer of German politics might conclude.”

In 2015, Stelzenmüller shared with her Amp audience that, when it comes to military engagements, Germany was perhaps most cautious with Russia. In her April Financial Times piece, she called Germany’s policy on Russia “self-serving,” and Germany’s energy dependence on Russia “part willfully naïve, part deeply corrupt.” Both found supporters across the German government, she wrote, which “emboldened the Kremlin, and … enabled Vladimir Putin’s war.”

But most urgently, Stelzenmüller wrote, Scholz needs “a proper national security staff that can advise and assist the head of government to weather an age of continual disruptions.”

“It matters all the more,” she wrote, “because Germany has a special responsibility to put a stop to the evil unleashed by Putin.”

CNN’s Fareed Zakaria opens Week 1, examining U.S. role in world

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Giving the world his take twice every Sunday, Fareed Zakaria, broadcast journalist and bestselling author, is best known for his CNN program “Fareed Zakaria GPS” and his columns for The Washington Post. 

Zakaria serves on the boards of the Council of Foreign Relations and New America, and has written extensively on liberal education, freedom and post-pandemic life. At 10:45 a.m. Monday, June 27, in the Amphitheater, he opens Week One of the Chautauqua Lecture Series: “What Should be America’s Role in the World?”

“Our ask to him has been to both open our season and our week with that question: ‘What do I think is, and what should be, America’s role in the world?’” said Matt Ewalt, vice president and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education, whose department coordinates the morning lecture series. “From that will also be an understanding of how the impact of the war in Ukraine (affects) other foreign policy issues and America’s standing in the world.”

Zakaria’s work with geopolitics and his CNN broadcast have equipped him to open the Week One lecture series.

“He’s also uniquely positioned into quarters to provide a global kind of mindset for us to be able to take in, consider, challenge assumptions and ultimately engage with one another,” Ewalt said.

When it comes to planning the Week One morning lectures, Ewalt and his programming team are charged with finding speakers who are experts on foreign policy and geopolitical issues.

“It’s an opportunity to go beyond headlines, and even great journalism out there that has dug into these issues, (to) really try to better understand the larger context for the world and think about America’s role in the broader geopolitics,” Ewalt said.

Zakaria has spoken at Chautauqua three times previously about Pakistan, global affairs and artificial intelligence in 2012, 2014 and 2016 respectively.

From Zakaria’s CNN program, “GPS,” he noted that “Ukraine and its Western partners must consider what an end game with Russia might look like or risk an unending war.”

The impact of the war in Ukraine frames this week’s morning lectures and connects it to larger foreign policy issues.

“None of these things are happening in a vacuum,” Ewalt said. “Not only looking at the kind of impact, but the war in Ukraine and the way in which the United States has or has not decided to support Ukraine, all of that is connected to other decisions and other geopolitical issues.” 

Ewalt said Zakaria has “a unique ability to go even deeper and provide greater context for what is going on in the world.”

When picking their speakers, the programming team adapted the first week to hone in on Ukraine and Russia.

“Kathryn Stoner, our speaker on Wednesday, is really going to focus in on Russia,” Ewalt said. “I think with all the speakers we have during the week, and certainly with Fareed Zakaria, that will be the issue front and center.”

‘New Yorker’ staffer Osnos to close season with talk on resilience of U.S. democracy

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NICK DANLAG – STAFF WRITER

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The New Yorker staff writer Evan Osnos spent a decade living in China, Iraq and Egypt, and during this time, he often found himself trying to convince people of America’s core values; that despite the mistakes the country had made, it was committed to equal opportunity, truth and law. 

But when he returned home in 2013, he saw these principles were under attack. 

He wanted to understand why. 

This was the basis of his forthcoming book Wildland: The Making of America’s Fury, which is slated to release on Sept. 14. All of its reviews point to Osnos’ thorough reporting and, in the words of Michael J. Sandel, author of The Tyranny of Merit: Can We Find the Common Good? who lectured at Chautauqua last season: “Osnos gives us a riveting tale of dark times, told with a pathos and humanity that prompts hope of something better.”

At 10:30 a.m. Thursday, Aug. 26 in the Amphitheater, Osnos will be the last presenter of the 2021 Chautauqua Lectures Series, concluding Week Nine’s theme of “Resilience.” In his lecture, titled, “American Bedrock: Renewing the Ties That Bind Us,” he will discuss the resilience of American democracy and the people currently rebuilding community prosperity.

“As we close not only our week on resiliency, but also a season of conversations on trust and democracy, our divisions as a country, the role of empathy and the state of our economy, Osnos brings these themes together in a reflection on what we’ve become over the past 20 years and how we may find our way once again,” said Matt Ewalt, vice president and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education.

In the prologue to Wildland, Osnos wrote that he was attempting to tie together the “disparate experiences of being American,” and noted that this moment needed to go beyond what’s known as parachute reporting, where national journalists go into “unfamiliar territory and interview a few dozen strangers.” 

This moment, he wrote, “demanded a deeper kind of questioning.”

“I hoped to find some explanations that were larger than the immediate events suggested — in linkages across geography and generations, and in some of the underlying attitudes that people are not quick to tell a stranger,” Osnos wrote.

Osnos is also the author of Joe Biden: The Life, the Run, and What Matters Now, where he documents through over 100 interviews, including with Biden himself, the current president’s life-long quest to lead the country, a journey marked by personal tragedy.

In Age of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth, and Faith in the New China, Osnos discussed how Western countries see China as a caricature, either of politicians only thinking of numbers, students only thinking about grades, or as a superpower about to stop growing, illustrating that “what we don’t see is how both powerful and ordinary people are remaking their lives as their country dramatically changes,” according to the book description. It won the National Book Award in 2014, and was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize.

At The New Yorker, Osnos covers politics and foreign affairs. From 2008 to 2013, he was the magazine’s China correspondent. Previously, he was the Chicago Tribune’s Beijing bureau chief, where he helped in a series that won the 2008 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting. Prior to that, he worked in the Middle East, primarily reporting from Iraq.

Editor of ‘400 Souls’ Blain to discuss resilience in face of racism

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NICK DANLAG – STAFF WRITER

Blain

Keisha N. Blain credits her mentors and professors at Binghamton University for getting her involved in Black feminism and Black feminist nationalism. 

She read widely about Black nationalism and internationalism and felt unsatisfied with how much of the writing treated gender and excluded Black women, according to an interview with Roar. At 10:30 a.m. Wednesday, Aug. 25 in the Amphitheater, Blain will join the Chautauqua Lecture Series’ Week Nine’s Theme of “Resilience” for what Vice President and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education Matt Ewalt described as a “frank discussion of resistance and resilience in the face of racism.”

Black women’s concerns, she said in her interview with Roar, are still sidelined in conversations about policing. 

“While we know that the majority of Black people killed by police in the United States are young men, we distort the narrative when we only focus on Black men,” Blain said. Despite many high-profile murders, like that of Breonna Taylor, “there is still a perception among many Americans that Black women are somehow shielded from the threat of police violence.” 

And she said there were many parallels between the uprisings after George Floyd’s murder and the past. 

During several months of labor and race-related violence in East St. Louis in 1917, during which white people murdered as many as 150 Black people, law enforcement actually joined in with those attacking Black people, a relative of one of the victims told Blain. There are differences between now and then, however.

“The civil rights movement, for example, was certainly diverse, and we see that in groups like the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), an interracial civil rights organization. But that was not the case across the board,” Blain told Roar. “The widespread involvement of white Americans as well as Asian Americans, Latinx and others in today’s protests is significant and underscores how much has changed since the 1960s.”

Blain is the editor, along with Ibram X. Kendi, of Four Hundred Souls, which features 80 writers who each took a five-year period of the 400-year journey of African Americans from 1619 to the present, with “10 lyrical interludes from poets,” according to Blain. 

Blain is an associate professor of history at the University of Pittsburgh and president of the African American Intellectual History Center. She is also a columnist for MSNBC, and her writing has been published by The Atlantic, The Guardian, Time, The Chronicle of Higher Education and many other publications. She is also the author of Set the World on Fire: Black Nationist Women and the Global Struggle for Freedom, which examines how Black nationist women engaged in politics from the early 1900s to 1960s. 

In her columns for MSNBC, Blain has written about Black workers at an Amazon facility in Windsor, Connecticut, finding eight nooses around their work area; Black TikTok creators boycotting posting new dance routines after many of the dances they created went viral and they received no attribution; and President Joe Biden reversing President Donald Trump’s discriminatory housing policies.

In the housing column, she wrote about an incident on Aug. 1 in the city of Wyoming, Michigan, in which police handcuffed Eric Brown, an African American realtor, along with a client and the client’s 15-year-old son.

“The majority-white city of Wyoming — of which only 7.8% of the residents are Black — is not the only site of racial profiling and housing discrimination, a persistent problem the Biden administration is now working to address,” Blain said. 

She then mentioned other incidents, such as a white man in Mount Laurel, New Jersey, who was arrested after harassing several of his neighbors of color by throwing rocks at them and smearing feces on their windows.

Blain also wrote that despite progress from the civil rights movement, housing remains a “racial battlefield” in the U.S., with housing discrimination keeping families of color out of many neighborhoods.

She then quoted Biden, who said “the federal government has a critical role to play in overcoming and redressing this history of discrimination and in protecting against other forms of discrimination by applying and enforcing Federal civil rights and fair housing laws.”

University Hospitals officer Adan shares ideas, tools for resilience

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SARAH VEST – STAFF WRITER

Adan

Stress is an ever-present element in a person’s life, and how they deal with it greatly impacts how their life plays out. 

Françoise Adan studies resiliency and will share her findings on the role it has in people’s lives at 10:30 a.m. Tuesday, Aug. 24 in the Amphitheater for the Chautauqua Lecture Series theme of “Resilience.”

Adan is the Chief Whole Health and Wellbeing Officer for University Hospitals and the director for the UH Connor Integrative Health Network, based in Cleveland. She is the Endowed Connor Chair of Integrative Medicine at UH and the recipient of the Christopher M. and Sara H. Connor Master Clinician in Integrative Health award.

Adan has been a psychiatrist for more than 25 years and specializes in three areas — stress management, work/life balance and the mind/body/spirit connection. She said that she has always been intrigued by the differences between people who are able to bounce back quickly and those who struggle. 

It is an idea that has held a personal — and professional — fascination for her. It’s reason that she became a psychiatrist and has dedicated her career to understanding it. 

Most of her work has been spent doing one-on-one sessions with patients. Some of her patients were able to bounce back from trauma and recover — and in some cases, thrive — while others struggled heavily. Adan said she has learned a lot by seeing what has and has not worked for them. In some ways, she said, she has become a student of resilience, and her patients are her teachers. 

“Resilience is not something that you are born with; it is something that you can cultivate and learn and get better at,” Adan said. “(This) gives us hope, because it’s not like either you have it or you don’t — you actually can build it if you follow some principles.”

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Adan spearheaded a new system-wide program in order to provide resources and support for UH’s 28,000 caregivers who work in 22 hospitals as well as more than 50 health centers and outpatient facilities and over 200 physician offices located in Northeast Ohio. 

For the last 18 months, Adan said, it has felt like health care workers have been under attack from the neverending stress that comes from working during a pandemic. She is responsible for equipping and empowering UH’s employees to face this stress and help make them more resilient. The idea that they will soon be facing another wave of COVID-19 has only increased Adan’s motivation to learn more about resilience and develop more tools so that she can help others. 

During her lecture, Adan will talk about lessons she has learned over the course of the pandemic and practical tools people can use to build their own resilience — the very tools that she has used to help health care workers. The tools that she is going to talk about will be applicable on a personal level, but she hopes that people will take them back to their families and workplaces and use them to help others. 

“Pandemic or not, stress is not going to go away,” Adan said. “I just want to make sure that people leave with hope and with practical tools, so they can manage whatever curveball life is throwing at them.”

Pulitzer Prize winner Addario shares portraits of resilience

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KRISTEN TRIPLETT – STAFF PHOTOGRAPHER

Addario

There aren’t many who have had to be as resilient as photojournalist Lynsey Addario. With a 20-plus year career of covering conflict, she has been on the front lines of war, witnessed death and has been kidnapped twice. 

Addario said that these experiences, however, don’t compare to those of the people she covers.

“I’m often doing work surrounded by people who are even more vulnerable than I am, and often in more dangerous situations,” she said. “So, I think for me, I’ve found a lot of strength in the people that I cover. … I’ve tried to use their strength and their resilience in my own work and to really focus on getting their stories out, giving them a voice.”

Addario will open Week Nine’s Chautauqua Lecture Series, themed “Resilience,” at 10:30 a.m. Monday, Aug. 23 in the Amphitheater. From the stage, she will take the audience through the trajectory of her career and share the stories that she has covered across the world.

Addario has produced work for The New York Times, National Geographic and Time, and she has received awards like a shared Pulitzer Prize as part of The New York Times team for international reporting.

She’s also the recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship. She started her career in her early 20s without any professional photographic training.

She was just 26 when she first traveled to Afghanistan, which became the location where she took some of her most formative images. 

Covering the country under Taliban rule pre-9/11, Addario’s work often focused on women’s issues. 

She notes in her recent article for The Atlantic, titled “The Taliban’s Return Is Catastrophic For Women,” that being a female photojournalist got her into places her male colleagues couldn’t go.

“I quickly learned the virtue of being a female photojournalist, despite the challenges: I had free access to women in spaces where men were culturally or legally prohibited to enter,” she wrote.

Having access to hospitals and private homes allowed others to see into the lives of people they formally might have known nothing about. 

It’s really easy to kind of just stay focused on your own life. But I believe that we all need to have perspective about what people are going through around the world. And part of that is that perspective is gained through journalism, through doing the work that me and so many of my colleagues do.”

-Lynsey Addario,
photojournalist

Addario’s work in Afghanistan continues to be important now, particularly with the Taliban’s recent retake of the country. Her work stands to remind people of the consequences of Afghanistan under Taliban control, and she continues to speak out on those issues.

Addario decided to write her book, It’s What I Do: A Photographer’s Life of Love and War, which was a 2016 finalist for The Chautauqua Prize, shortly after being kidnapped in Libya.

“I really felt like I needed to sort of take a moment to kind of think back on the situations I had been in,” she said. “I hadn’t really taken a break in over 10 years, and it just felt like after Libya, I needed to take stock.”

This time spent writing allowed Addario to look through old images as well as old writings from her early days covering conflict.

“When I sat down to start writing it just felt really therapeutic,” she said. “It definitely felt like the right thing to do.”

Part of Addario’s magic is her ability to connect with the people she covers. Her empathy and skill for putting those she photographs at ease is present in her images. Her work as a journalist continues to open people’s minds and perspectives on lives other than their own.

“It’s really easy to kind of just stay focused on your own life,” Addario said. “But I believe that we all need to have perspective about what people are going through around the world. And part of that is that perspective is gained through journalism, through doing the work that me and so many of my colleagues do.”

In lecture set to be streamed into Amp, Duke professor of law, philosophy Farahany to examine ethical implications of neurotech developments

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SARAH VEST – STAFF WRITER

Farahany

What if you could turn the lights on in your home with no more effort than it takes to think about it? That kind of technology is on its way to the consumer market, and Nita Farahany, today’s morning lecturer, is worried about what that means for people’s privacy. 

Farahany is the Robinson O. Everett Professor of Law and a philosophy professor at Duke University, as well as the founding director of Duke University Science & Society, chair of the Duke Master of Arts in Bioethics & Science Policy and principal investigator of SLAP Lab. In 2010, she was appointed by President Barack Obama to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues and served until 2017. Farahany received her bachelor of arts degree in genetics, cell and developmental biology at Dartmouth College, a juris doctor and master of arts degree from Duke, as well as a doctoral degree in philosophy.

Farahany is currently studying neurotechnology, specifically consumer neurotechnology. This kind of technology decodes brain activity and then uses pattern classification — otherwise known as artificial intelligence — to make sense of the data. Her morning lecture at 10:30 a.m. Aug. 19 streamed into the Amphitheater will focus on the extraordinary ways in which people can now access and change their brains, but also the kinds of rights individuals may need to have protected in order to maximize the benefits of neurotechnology while minimizing the potential harms that arise from opening a black box in the brain. 

Due to a significant family health risk, Farahany pre-recorded her lecture and will participate in a live Q-and-A from her home. The program will be broadcast live in the Amp as well as the CHQ Assembly Video Platform. The program will be moderated on the Amphitheater stage by Chautauqua President Michael E. Hill and Matt Ewalt, vice president and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education.

According to Farahany, there are two kinds of neurotechnology that are being marketed for consumer use. 

The first is electroencephalography (EEG) technology, which reads the electrical activity in a person’s brain as they have a thought, do a calculation or experience an emotion. 

When you have a thought, your brain has hundreds of thousands neurons that fire, Farahany said. Each of those neurons gives off a small electrical discharge that forms distinctive patterns depending on what kind of thought a person has. Then artificial intelligence software reads the pattern and can tell what the thought was based on the pattern. This could be used to detect when a driver is tired, for example. 

The second kind of neurotechnology is electromyography (EMG) technology. Instead of focusing on the electrical impulses in a person’s brain, EMG focuses on the neurons that control the muscles in a person’s body, called motor neurons. According to Farahany, these kinds of electrical patterns could be decoded through something a person was wearing on their wrist. 

Farahany uses typing as an example of EMG technology. If a person wanted to type a word, a wristlet could decode the electrical impulses to determine what word they were going to type. 

According to Farahany, big companies from Facebook to Apple are making big bets and investments in these kinds of technologies. There are even companies, like Neuralink, that are dedicated to developing EEG and EMG technology. 

“All of that, from my perspective, adds up to a likely future where neurotechnology will become the new platform that we use to interact with other technology in the world,” Farahany said. “Instead of using a mouse or keyboard, you will use a neurotechnology device to type or to communicate with your friends. You might just think about turning on the lights in your house, rather than getting up and walking over there to turn them on.”

She calls all these technologies “exciting and promising,” but they also introduce new risks. The device could pick up on not only what a person intended to type, but a broader set of emotions and thoughts than they intended to communicate. The question that leads to is who has the right to that kind of data and how do lawmakers ensure people are able to enjoy the benefits of the technology while protecting people’s thoughts?

Even though this kind of neurotechnology sounds like it has been plucked from a science fiction novel, it is already being used commercially. According to Farahany, this technology is being used by employers and large corporations, as well as in educational settings, though it is not yet in widespread use. The data is already being collected and commodified. 

“If we want to have at least a right to mental privacy, if we want to have a final fortress in our brain, we need to do something about this now,” Farahany said. 

Despite her fears over user privacy, Farahany thinks that there are huge upsides to developing and using neurotechnology. With neurotechnology, someone with epilepsy would be able to detect a seizure an hour before it happened. People who are diabetic would be able to track insulin levels through the brain in less invasive and more accurate ways that the current needle method. It could improve the quality of life and adaptive skills of people with autism spectrum disorder.

“Being able to decode the human brain is critical to being able to address mental disease, to being able to improve our output and improve our mental health,” Farahany said. “Unless we can really decode and understand what’s happening in the brain, there’s no hope of being able to address some of the greatest ills that face humanity.”

Neuroscientist Marlin to give lecture on how trauma in parents can be passed on through DNA to children

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NICHOLE JIANG – STAFF WRITER

Marlin

The brain produces every thought, memory, feeling and action, and humans may never be able to fully understand or grasp the complexity of its inner workings. However, neuroscientist Bianca Jones Marlin has dedicated her life to researching the most complex organ in our body, and hopes to shed some light into the mysteries of the brain at 10:30 a.m. Wednesday, Aug. 18 in the Amphitheater. 

Marlin’s lecture will focus on how information is passed from generation to generation through transgenerational epigenetic inheritance; more specifically, how trauma in parents can affect the brain structure and sensory development of their children. Marlin’s research presented at today’s lecture is part of Week Eight’s theme of “The Human Brain: Our Greatest Mystery.”

Marlin has always been fascinated with genetics. In addition to raising her, Marlin’s biological parents were also the foster parents of several other children. This experience of growing up with both biological and nonbiological siblings influenced Marlin’s interest in science and paved the way for her scientific career. Marlin would listen to her nonbiological siblings’ stories of childhood trauma before joining her family, and Marlin became curious about how a negative relationship with one’s parents could affect a child. 

This interest and natural talent for the sciences is what led Marlin through a highly successful academic and research career. Marlin graduated from St. John’s University with dual bachelor’s degrees in biology and adolescent education. Marlin then went on to graduate from the New York University of Medicine with a doctorate in neuroscience. She is now the Herbert and Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Cell Research at Columbia University’s Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute. 

Her work here includes the mechanism of transgenerational inheritance of environmental information. 

Through her research, Marlin discovered that a parent’s learned behavior can actually become a natural behavior in their children. Marlin’s research goal is to prove that these adaptations can be passed on to multiple generations. This work and research into learning and emotions being passed on from one generation to the next biologically, though DNA, has the potential to have a huge impact in understanding societal health and an individual’s mental health. 

Marlin has received various recognitions for her research such as the 2020 Allen Institute Next Generation Leaders, 2017 STAT Wunderkinds Award and the 2016 Donald B. Lindsley Prize. Her research has also been featured in numerous notable publications such as NPR’s “Science Friday,” The Los Angeles Times, Discover magazine’s “100 Top Stories of 2015” and National Geographic. However, it was Marlin’s research as a graduate student with parental behavior and oxytocin that truly set her apart.

Marlin’s first major scientific breakthrough was centered around oxytocin, which is known as the “love hormone” in maternal behavior. Her research linked the hormone to neural changes that were associated with learned maternal behavior. Marlin noted that when mice pups are lost, they release an ultrasonic cry that allows their mothers to come find them. However, inexperienced female mice would instead ignore the cries and at times even eat the baby. Marlin was able to find changes in the auditory cortex associated with this response, and she saw that only the left side of the auditory cortex controls this behavior and that oxytocin must be delivered to this side to speed up the retrieval of the lost babies. Marlin’s research was groundbreaking, as it showed a dedicated neural circuit and the importance of oxytocin. 

Today’s lecture will be centered around Marlin’s second major scientific finding with trauma and epigenetic mechanisms. Her team at Columbia has been researching by establishing a traumatic memory through fear in adult mice by pairing a scent with a shock. In her research, she discovered that the offspring of these mice actually avoided that same scent, even though they had never personally experienced that trauma. Marlin will also focus on how sperm cells have the potential to carry genetic memories, allowing fathers to pass on the memory of trauma to their offspring.

Marlin’s research has the potential to have groundbreaking results, and today’s lecture is a chance to take a dive deeper into the complexity of the human brain and how genetics play a larger role in our social behavior and mental well-being. 

In panel discussion, Ornstein, Insel, Leifman to speak on treatment, response to mental illness in justice system; what reforms are needed

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LAURA PHILION – COPY & DIGITAL EDITOR

Ornstein

Political analyst Norman Ornstein knows firsthand how badly the system can fail.

Ornstein’s son, Matthew, died accidentally in early 2015 after a long struggle with serious mental illness. Since he was in his 30s, his parents had no legal control over him — unable to help their son through his refusal of treatment and anosognosia (inability to recognize how sick he was), Matthew’s parents watched their son suffer until his untimely death.

“Our mental health system is broken,” Ornstein said.

Ornstein, a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, and his wife, Judy Harris, founded the Matthew Harris Ornstein Memorial Foundation. Its aim is to honor Matthew’s legacy and to advocate for mental health reform. Harris is working to change the standard for treatment, so cases like Matthew’s are actionable while would-be patients are still able to be helped.

“Often, you literally have to have a gun at your head or a knife at someone else’s throat,” Ornstein said, “or you can’t qualify.”

At 10:30 a.m. Tuesday, Aug. 17 in the Amphitheater, Ornstein, former National Institute of Mental Health Director Thomas Insel and Associate Administrative Judge of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit Court Steven Leifman will have a joint discussion on the state of mental health treatment in the U.S., with an emphasis on crisis response and reshaping care for the seriously mentally ill. Their talk is the second of Week Eight’s Chautauqua Lecture Series, themed “The Human Brain: Our Greatest Mystery,” and can also be viewed online through a subscription to the CHQ Assembly Video Platform. Ornstein will also lead a master class, “The Threats to American Democracy,” at 10:30 a.m. Friday at Smith Wilkes Hall.

“When you change the way the police deal with those with serious mental illnesses,” Ornstein said, “you can change how they operate in general.”

Insel, who was the director of NIMH for 13 years, stepped down in 2017 to move to the private sector. 

“I wanted to move out of academia,” he said. “I’d been thinking a lot about impact — our science … was stunning, moving at a ridiculously exciting pace.”

At the same time, he said, suicide rates were skyrocketing. The mental health of the nation was declining. He couldn’t make sense of it.

And then, at a talk he was giving, a man stood up while Insel was giving a summation of recent discoveries.

“A guy stood up and said, ‘You don’t get it. My son has schizophrenia … Our house is on fire, and you’re talking about the color of the paint,’ ” Insel said. “It crystallized what I’d been thinking.”

Insel

Insel’s upcoming book, Healing: Our Path from Mental Illness to Mental Health, characterizes the question of treatment as one of civil rights. The so-called mental health crisis is not a new thing, he writes; it is a crisis of care surrounded by harmful misconceptions and ways of thinking.

“There are 10 million people (with serious mental illness) who nobody will ever hear about,” he said, “who will die 20 to 25 years before they should.”

Working with California Gov. Gavin Newsom, Insel now spearheads California’s version of the “988 Bill,” an initiative where instead of calling police for a mental health crisis, people can call 988 to a call center that will dispatch a mobile health van complete with a social worker, peer counselor and a nurse. 

“The path to mental health for this country is the three Ps,” Insel said. “People, place and purpose. Those don’t come in a pill — they require a whole range of connections.” 

President John F. Kennedy implemented pieces of a system in the 1960s, he said, but by the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan gutted it.

“We built a national system,” Insel said, “and then we dismantled it.”

When Judge Steven Leifman was in his early days on the bench, the parents of a defendant approached him. They wanted to talk to him before he heard their son’s case; they tearfully told him that their son was schizophrenic. 

“I assumed there must be a system of care in place,” Leifman recalled. “I was wrong.” 

Leifman ended up having to release the defendant because of the minor nature of the charges. There was nothing he could do for the man, even though he had had a schizophrenic break in the courtroom. 

Something had to change.

Now, with 24 years on the bench, Leifman has helped Miami-Dade County restructure its treatment of the mentally ill. He started the Eleventh Judicial Circuit Criminal Mental Health Project in 2000, and since then, the county’s statistics have dropped astonishingly: 118,000 arrests dropped to 50,000; recidivism rates for misdemeanors went from 75% to 20%; and felony recidivism went from 75% to 25%. 

Leifman

Out of 105,000 mental health-related emergency calls last year, only 98 arrests were made as a result. And police shootings have all but stopped.

“Nobody got shot, nobody got hurt, nobody got killed,” Leifman said. 

Leifman’s initiative operates two main prongs: pre-arrest diversion and post-arrest progression. 

“We’ve trained 7,600 officers in crisis intervention teams training, where we teach them to de-escalate and take people into treatment,” Leifman said. “It’s saved the county from (handing down) 300 years of jail time and $12 million a year. We were able to close a jail.”

The initiative’s crowning achievement is a seven-story mental health diversion facility, which will open in March 2022. Leifman called it a “one-stop shop for acute cases — the people we walk by every day on the street.” The facility will sport not only psychiatric treatment, but 200 beds, primary care physicians, a courtroom and programs to teach patients new skills.

“It’s not that the care doesn’t exist,” Leifman said. “It’s that most of the care is inaccessible. Instead of kicking people to the curb after adjudicating their cases, we can reintegrate them and help them have a better life.”

Leifman said mental illnesses are like any other illnesses of the body, and that there is less stigma around them than there once was.

“I think the country’s finally waking up,” he said. “… Everyone deserves to be happy and to live a life of hope.”

Ornstein agrees.

“We need to find a better balance,” he said. “ … There are a lot of areas in which we need to work. We are working with (vice president and Emily and Richard Smucker Chair for Education) Matt Ewalt to go beyond the season (and continue the conversation). The infrastructure bill (passed by the U.S. Congress) doesn’t have any mental health infrastructure in it.”

Ornstein concluded: “We need to inform everyone (on treatment). Police, judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys and jailers, too.”

OSU scholar of story science Fletcher to discuss new way of thinking about the brain in week’s opening lecture

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MAX ZAMBRANO – STAFF WRITER

Fletcher

Using his own brain, Angus Fletcher thought of a different way of understanding every human’s brain. 

“When I started out in neuroscience research, everyone had a lot of different ways of studying the brain, but a lot of them involved cutting up the brain,” he said. “My thought was we might understand a lot more about the brain by studying some of the things the brain has created.”

Creativity, imagination and emotion weren’t being studied much in neuroscience when he began his studies more than two decades ago in college, he said. So, he began studying the arts and its relation to neuroscience. He ultimately earned his doctoral degree from Yale University. Fletcher, now a professor of story science at Ohio State University, published his findings in Wonderworks: The 25 Most Powerful Inventions in the History of Literature, released this past March. 

He will open Week Eight’s Chautauqua Lecture Series, themed “The Human Brain: Our Greatest Mystery,” at 10:30 a.m. Monday, Aug. 16 in the Amphitheater.

This book, endorsed by respected psychologists, neuroscientists, doctors and literary scholars from around the world, outlines things Fletcher has learned, what literature teaches about the brain, why the brain is special but also how the brain and literature evolved together, he said.

“Literature is our most powerful tool for getting the most out of the human brain,” he said.

Literature can help people have a healthier brain, heal grief, sorrow and loneliness, give the brain more joy, hope, love and empathy, can make people better problem-solvers or think scientifically and can help people be more creative, Fletcher said.

“Basically, the goal of the book is to lay out how to get more of the good stuff out of your brain by reading some of your favorite books in a different way and by reading some wonderful books on your shelf that maybe you haven’t picked up yet,” he said. 

He’s made some surprising discoveries along the way. 

Having worked with veterans dealing with trauma and various therapies for trauma, Fletcher said it was recently discovered there are two forms of post-traumatic stress disorder. 

One is commonly caused by a single, violent instance of trauma, which is the more commonly known type of PTSD involving flashbacks and uncontrollable emotions, he said. 

The second kind works the exact opposite, he said. If someone has chronic trauma over time, such as in the cases of domestic abuse or a highly dysfunctional or stressful work environment, then it can manifest in no emotion or numbness, often called depersonalization or derealization, he said.

“What surprised me was that poets and writers actually realized this before scientists,” he said. “They had developed ways of dealing with both types of trauma.”

One of Fletcher’s favorite aspects of literature is it makes people more imaginative, he said. He made another surprising discovery related to that.

“One of the things that blew me away was that a lot of specific techniques and technologies that writers discovered for increasing our imagination and creativity are in children’s literature,” he said. “We always think of children as being more naturally imaginative than adults, but a big part of it is not that — it’s actually the kind of books they read, the kind of stories they tell.”

People stop reading those books when they are no longer children, simultaneously losing touch with the same level of creativity and imagination, he said. Revisiting those books could spark people’s creativity and imagination, which could benefit them in their ordinary lives, he said.

“These books from our past that we’ve forgotten about might actually be the thing we need to go back to and need most,” he said.

In his lecture, Fletcher will focus on emotion and creativity, giving a few quick and specific examples of how literature can help understand those two traits. He said people will be invited to think of the brain in a completely different way than they were taught or that most scientists still think.

He hopes his book will change education in the United States. 

“Education in this country is focused primarily on critical thinking and logic,” he said. “Even in our arts and literature classes, we go in and learn about critical thinking and writing arguments.”

Instead, literature should stir emotional growth and creative thinking. Literature is open-ended and diverse, so it doesn’t prescribe or restrict that growth, but rather gives opportunities for people to find themselves emotionally, creatively and intellectually, he said.

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